The Central Asian region has made a significant contribution to the development of human civilization. In medieval times, there were many scientists and scientific schools in Central Asia, and the Ma’mun Academy in Khorezm serves as a vivid example. The political stability, economic and social development of Khorezm at the end of the 10th and the beginning of the 12th centuries, as well as the fruitful relations of the peoples of the region, created favorable conditions for the establishment of a scientific school in Gurganch (now Urgench). In medieval sources there is no information about the exact date of creation of the Academy of Mamun. However, there are reliable facts that Abu Rayhon Beruni and Abu Ali ibn Sino (Avicenna) met in Gurganch for scientific research in 1004. Therefore, it can be assumed that the Academy existed thanks to the rulers of the Khorezmshah dynasty.
In 992 a new ruler came to power in Gurganch – Abu Ali Ma’mun. During his reign, many scientists were invited to develop scientific activities. Despite the fact that the Ma’mun Academy operated until 1017, a lot of scientific research in the fields of astronomy, mathematics, medicine, chemistry, physics, geography, mineralogy, history, philosophy, literature, linguistics, law and other sciences was still developing. In particular, in astronomy, corrected astronomical tables for stars and planetary motion, as well as new astronomical instruments were developed. Using these tools, Beruni predicted and investigated the lunar eclipse in 1004. Studies in mathematics conducted by Abu Mansur ibn Iraq, Beruni and Abu Khair Hammor. Ibn Iraq, Beruni’s teacher, has written about 30 scientific books on mathematics and astronomy. Beruni himself in his 150 books wrote articles on mathematics and astronomy. The isosceles triangle qualities theorem was proved by Abu Khair Hammor and is widely known as the “Hammori Theorem” (Al-Shakl al-Hammori).
Beruni and Ibn Sino contributed to the development of chemistry. Beruni proved the relationship between the comparative mass of a substance and its chemical composition in the article on “Comparative Mass.” Ibn Sino did chemical experiments on the transformation of substances, these results were described in the article “Treatise on the Philosopher’s Stone”. As you know, this article appeared in Khorezm in 1005.
Scientists Abu Sahl al-Masihiy, Abu Khair Hammor, Ibn Sino and Beruni wrote scientific works on medicine. In particular, Abu Khair Hammor was known as the Second Hippocrates for his innovative theoretical teachings in such areas of medicine as human anatomy, diets of the elderly, methods of medical experiments, food substances and epilepsy. Abu Sahl al-Masihiy gained fame for his practical studies in medicine. Ibn Sino, despite his short 5-year stay in Khorezm (1005–1010), wrote very important articles on the treatment of wounds (Dafal-Mador).
Geography studies were mainly associated with the name Beruni. From the age of 16 he spent a lot of time measuring the geographical latitude of various places, for example, he calculated the geographical latitude of the city of Kyat in Khorezm. In 994, he was able to measure the exact level of deviation of the ecliptic plane of the village of Bushkanz (between the western bank of the Amu Darya and the city of Kyat) in relation to the equator. In 995, Beruni began research on creating a picture of the Earth in the shape of a globe. It was the first drawing of the Earth in the form of a globe with a relief. Beruni has written scientific articles on various areas of geography, such as natural geography, hydrology and mineralogy.
Mamun Academy in Khorezm was also famous for its research in the social sciences. The philosophy was deeply studied by correspondence Beruni with Ibn Sino. Both scientists expressed their views on the philosophical ideas of Aristotle about the end of the world. Beruni and Ibn Sino were supporters of the existence of other worlds and cultures. History studies were widely deployed at the Mamun Academy in Khorezm. To continue the academic traditions Beruni wrote a book – “Famous personalities of Khorezm” or “History of Khorezm”. Unfortunately, the book was not preserved and its main part was described in the book “History of Masudi” by Abu Fazl Baihahiy, which was dedicated to Sultan Massoud Ghaznavi. In addition, information about the history was found in other Beruni books, such as Monuments, Knowledge (At-Tafkhim) and India. Judging from the books of al-Saolibi “Amazing Information” (“Latoif al-Maorif”, X – XI centuries), al-Samoni “The Book of the Ancestors” (“Kitob al-Ansob” of the XII centuries), Yokut al-Hamaviy ” Encyclopedia of Writers ”(“ Men of Al-Ubad ”) and others, the Academy of Mammun enjoyed fame as a center of literature and art. Many poets and writers such as Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Sakhriy, Abdulloh bin Hamid, Abu Sayyid bin Shabib, Abu Hasan bin Mamun, Abu Abdulloh at-Tohir, Ibrohim Rakkoniy, worked at the Academy Mammun. The adviser to Khorezmshah, al-Sakhliy, wrote poems and regularly organized literature competitions at the Mamun Academy in Khorezm. In this era, academy linguists have developed an Arabic grammar and vocabulary, which was an important tool for scientific communication.
The resolution of the 32nd session of the UNESCO General Conference in 2003 and the order of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated November 9, 2004 “On the celebration of the 1000th anniversary of the Academy of Mamun in Khorezm” gave impetus to global studies of the well-known medieval academic academy and expanded the public understanding of cultural heritage of Uzbekistan.
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