History of Uzbekistan

Independent Uzbekistan is a country with a great history and rich cultural heritage.

The oldest cities on the territory of modern Uzbekistan are Samarkand (742 BC), Bukhara (IV century BC.), Khiva (VI century BC.), Shakhrisabz (VII century BC.), Tashkent, Margilan (II century BC. E.), Karshi and Termez (V century BC).

The appearance of the first states on the territory of Uzbekistan dates back to the VII—VIII centuries BC when such states as Bactria, Khorezm and Sogdiana were created.

In 329–327 BC Alexander the Great conquered Sogdiana and Bactria, but for a long time could not strengthen the power because of the uprising of the local population. In the epoch of Greco-Bactria, Khorezm flourished and was enriched, the craft and art actively developed.

One of the three main caravan routes of the Great Silk Road passed through central Uzbekistan and the Fergana Valley. By caravan routes transported precious stones, gold jewelry, carpets, porcelain, weapons, and also herds of horses, highly valued in China, were distilled.

In the 6th – 7th centuries, part of the territory of modern Uzbekistan was part of Sogdiana and Bactria, which were later dependent on the Turkic Kaganate and the Sassanian Empire. After the conquest of the Arabs, it was part of the Arab Caliphate.

From the second quarter of the 9th century, the territory of modern Uzbekistan became part of the Samanid state. During this period, the foundations of state government (ministry) were formed, which existed until the beginning of the 10th century. At the end of the 10th century, the state fell under the onslaught of the Karakhanids and the Ghaznevids. In the heyday of the Gaznevids state, outstanding scholars and poets lived and worked at the court.

In the XII — XIII centuries, the territory became part of the state of Khorezmshahs.

In 1219-1221 the state conquered by the Mongols and became part of the uluses of the sons of Genghis Khan Juchi and Chagatai.

In the 14th century, Amir Timur (1336–1405) became the ruler of the  great empire. The great commander widely expanded the borders of the state and conquered many adjacent territories – Persia, Asia Minor, North India, Transcaucasia, East Desht-i-Kipchak and others. The capital of the state was Samarkand. In the Timurid era, the rise of science and culture takes important place.

In 1499, the territory was captured by the troops of Sheibani Khan. In 1500-1501 Samarkand was conquered and in its place was founded the Bukhara Khanate, also known as the state of Sheibanids.

Subsequently, the state of Sheibanids split into the Khiva and Bukhara khanates. A continuous change of rulers began, and the Fergana Valley separated.

By the time the territorial expansion of the Russian Empire began, there were three state formations on the territory of modern Uzbekistan: the Bukhara Emirate, the Kokand and the Khiva khanates.

From November 27, 1917 to February 22, 1918, Turkestan autonomy – an unrecognized independent state existed on the territory of Uzbekistan. After the national-territorial delimitation of Central Asia, on October 27, 1924, the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was formed with its capital in the city of Samarkand.

On September 1, 1930, the capital of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was moved from Samarkand to Tashkent.

Thanks to the initiative of the first President of Uzbekistan – Islam Karimov, on August 31, 1991, the independence of Uzbekistan was declared. On August 31, 1991, the Supreme Council of Uzbekistan adopted a resolution “On Proclaiming State Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan”, as well as the Law “On the Fundamentals of State Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan”. On September 30, 1991, the Uzbek SSR was renamed the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Constitution of Uzbekistan was adopted on December 8, 1992.

The acknowledge by Uzbekistan of state independence marked the beginning of a new era of sovereign development, characterized by large-scale transformations in all spheres of the life of the state and society. In a historically short period of time, our country has demonstrated impressive successes that the world community continues to admire.

Due to the rich historical and cultural heritage of Uzbekistan has become a modern tourist center, which is visited annually by millions of travel enthusiasts. The unique monuments located on the territory of our region reflect the centuries-old history of the people and receive positive feedback from the world community.


Important dates:

  • October 21, 1989 – a law was passed on the state language of the Republic of Uzbekistan – Uzbek;
  • August 31, 1991 – the Republic of Uzbekistan was declared an independent state;
  • September 1, 1991 – Independence Day of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
  • November 18, 1991 – the state flag of the Republic of Uzbekistan was approved;
  • December 29, 1991 – the first president of the Republic of Uzbekistan – Islam Abduganievich Karimov (government years – 1991-2016) was publicly elected;
  • March 2, 1992 – the Republic of Uzbekistan became a member of the UN, becoming its full member;
  • July 2, 1992 – the State Emblem of the Republic of Uzbekistan was approved;
  • December 8, 1992 – the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan was adopted;
  • December 10, 1992 – The National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan was approved;
  • July 1, 1994 – the national currency, sum, was introduced;
  • On December 14, 2016, the current President of the Republic of Uzbekistan – Shavkat Miromonovich Mirziyoev took the oath and took office.

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