Caves are considered unusual objects particularly in an area where under the action of water there often limestone formations originate. In the mountainous part of Uzbekistan’s territory there are more than 400 caves, among the natural phenomena there is a lot of not only beautiful, but also those having surprising properties which are important for scientific practice. The deepest cave of Uzbekistan is 1082 m.deep Kili Cave.It is one of the deepest caves in the whole Region.
The cave is located on a on a plateau Chakilkalon on Zarafshan mountain range. Mingchukur Mountains are the part of the south-western offshootsof Hissar Mountains. It is situated within the boundaries of the Kamashi area of Kashkadarya region. On the west side wall of Mingchukur mountains there is a cave not less amazing in the country.
This cave is located inside the gypsum and the length of the natural sanctuary reaches – 980 meters with the total volume of 36,000 cubic meters. The cave consists of two floors on the first floor there flows an underground river, its length 570 meters. In the northern side of Zarafshan mountains, to the southwest from the city of Samarkand there is the cave Hazrati Dawood (Saint David). The length of this natural sanctuary is 50 meters, the total volume – 1150 cubic meters. The cave has several large rooms. The nature itself has decorated the walls of the cave. Amazingly beautiful shapes were formed after thawing of limestone. In particular, in the mountains of Zarafshan, near the pass of Takhtikaracha there is a cave Yetti kiz (Seven Sisters) which has 80 meters in the length with the total volume of 1900 cubic meters.
In the north of the settlement Langar that in Chirakchi district of Kashkardarya region there is a cave called “Amir Temur`s cave”. Its length is 450 meters with the total volume of 1250 cubic meters. It is known that the cave is rich in stalactites and stalagmites.
In Kitab district of Kashkadarya region at a distance of 15 km from the settlement Makrid, in the northwest of the southern sides of the mountains Zarafshan there is a well-known cave Kiyikkamar.
It’s not a large cave, its length is only 26 meters, and the total volume is 410 cubic meters, but the cave has its own marvelous feature. On the walls and the outer part of the cave there found healthful glue mumiyo/ shilajit. In a valley of “Machay-darya”, on the left side wall of Baysun mountains a cave is located named Teshiktosh (length of the cave is 20 meters, total volume – 420 cubic meter). This cave has become known around the world because of its precious finds – a bone of the Neanderthal man.
The cave which is called in honor of Amir Temur, is in the Yakkabagh district of the Kashkadarya region. At a distance of 1 km from the settlement of Toshkurgan there is Kyzylsuv sanctuary and within the limits of this sanctuary there is a territory of “Qalai Sheron” (“Fortress of lions”), the Amir Temur cave is located precisely at this place. The length of this cave is 616 meters. Except it here there is another cave which is open from the outside on both sides. Both caves are located at the height of 2931 meters.
According to experts, monuments are considered integrally linked with each other. The entrance to the cave is on the right side of еру river valley, at top of 170 meters. It is located on a steep slope under 40-60°. On the threshold of the monument there is a small playground created by humans, its length is 20 meters the width – 3/5 meters. The cave “Amir Temur” has several sections, in one of them there flows an underground lake the width of which is 30 meters. From one side the the water of the lake is flowing out, its temperature is 8 ° C. The jingle of the water is heard throughout the cave. In Shurchi district of the Surkhandarya region, there is a cave known under the name Khojakent and in the cave there is a large water spring. From this source there comes 20 liters of water a minute. This cave is located 55 km to the north-west, in the oasis of Khojakent (the right tributary Surhandarya river) From this source every minute there are 20 liters of water.
The cave length – 220 meters with the total volume 2700 cubic meters. The source comes out to 30 meters up the cave`s threshold. The water in the source smells like hydrogen sulfide. In the splits of limestone that covers the walls of the cave the remains of the rubber-like hydrocarbon (dry oil) were found and on the edges – sulfur and large crystals of pellucid gypsum.
The river Paltav runs near the village of Burchmulla that in Bostanlik district of Tashkent region. On the right bank of the river there is a cave called “Obirakhmat.” It is widely known that that once in a very long past people used to live there. The cave is 18 meters long with the total volume of 3000 cubic meters. The diameter of the cave is 3-4 meters. In this sanctuary of the nature there is a huge stalagmite which has about 3 meters in height, in the lower part there is a loess the total thickness of the sedimentary layer reaches more than 10 meters.
Including, in the Bostanlyk district, in the village of Hodzhakent, the total length of group of caves makes 150 meters with the total amount of more than 540 cubic meters. More than 20 caves are included into this group and among them exists multistoried and having bilateral exits