The main centers for the production of silk carpets are the ancient city Margilan placed in the Ferghana region and the majestic Bukhara.
For the extraction of silk threads, silkworm caterpillars are grown. After mating with the male, the female lays eggs, the number of which can reach 800 pieces. Then it dies, and after a week caterpillars appear from the eggs, which are placed in special containers with mulberry leaves. For 30 days, the caterpillars eagerly absorb leaves and grow up to 3 cm. Toward the end of their active and well-fed life, the caterpillars stop eating and begin to pupate. To do this, they emit a special substance that hardens upon contact with air. So, gradually the caterpillar begins to rotate around itself, thereby creating a continuous cocoon.
So that the pupae do not spoil the cocoon, they are placed in hot water and they die. Next, dead pupae are extracted from the cocoons, and the cocoons are again boiled in hot water. Cocoons gradually begin to unwind and reel on a special bobbin. The length of a thread from one cocoon reaches 1 kilometer. To make it soft and snow-white, it is again subjected to heat treatment.
All cocoons that cannot be unwound are already manually disassembled and bundled, winding on to large coils for the subsequent manufacture of carpets. Carpet weaving is a very complex and very slow process. Depending on the size and number of knots, one carpet can be made from one year to three years. Previously, the designer thinks and develops the drawing, creating a kind of “road map” for the weaver. As a rule, each ornament and pattern has its own meaning and sacred meaning.
Silk threads are dyed using only natural dyes from seeds and plants. Threads and blanks fall to the carpet weavers, who begin to weave fruitfully by hand on a simple inclined loom. The craftswoman manages to make 1 centimeter of the carpet in one day.
Thus, using the traditions of national handicraft, high-quality products are obtained that are striking in their multi-color, bright patterns and amazing durability. It is imperative to touch such a carpet in order to understand the beauty of Uzbek silk!